Another extensive work by i.a. my professor Andreas Butz. “Improving the Accessibility of NFC/RFID-based Mobile Interaction through Learnability and Guidance” by Gregor Broll, Susanne Keck, Paul Holleis, Andreas Butz, 2009:

Design implications by:

  • Lernability: Dedicated start-tag, visual cues (physical objects/mobile devices)
  • Guidance: step by step cues (physical objects), wizards (mobile devices)

A few interessting study results were:

Sooner or later all subjects realized that they had to touch the NFC-symbols with their mobile phones to interact with them. However, 73% of them made a mistake in the way they touched the NFC-symbols (see violet bars in Figure 12). The order of performance for the different designs remains the same, although the differences are not as large as before. Errors include touching tags with the wrong part of the mobile phone, especially its bottom instead of the tip, holding the mobile phone too far away from tags to read them, touching tags too shortly to read them, trying to touch the NFC-symbols with the finger instead of the phone or touching completely wrong parts on the poster, like the visual cue or the movie posters instead of their corresponding NFC-symbols. Many subjects were also insecure about how to interact with the poster and did not think that touching a paper poster with their mobile devices would trigger any action. Surprisingly, 38% of all subjects tried to take a picture of the NFC-symbol with the mobile phone’s camera to interact with it, as they confused it with some kind of 2D-barcode. Some subjects only mentioned this idea and asked if they should take a picture, simply as this seemed to be the only way left to interact with the poster.


The combination of implicit designs (spatial arrangement of options and mobile list interface) performed best, while the combination of explicit designs (numbering of options and mobile wizard interface) performed worst. […] This indicates that the explicit guidance of the wizard puts more effort on the subjects and disrupts their mental workflow.